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An urgent open surgical approach for left ventricle venting during peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest: case report

Abstract : The objective of the study is to describe an emergency procedure for left ventricle venting during veno-arterial extracorporeal life support for refractory cardiac arrest. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is widely used in refractory cardiac arrest but is characterized by an increase in left ventricle afterload, which may impair cardiac contractility improvement. Different left ventricle venting techniques are available. We report the use of a surgical approach with sternotomy for left ventricle venting in a 21-year-old patient who was placed under veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest with severe pulmonary edema, respiratory failure, and left ventricle stasis. A 21-year-old woman was admitted for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. In the recovery room, she developed a refractory circulatory shock. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a dilated cardiomyopathy with severe left ventricle systolic dysfunction (left ventricle ejection fraction at 20%). Coronary angiogram was normal. On day 2, she underwent laparotomy for sepsis and she presented cardiac arrest secondary to ventricular tachycardia. We proceeded to peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as the cardiac arrest was refractory. A miniaturized veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation system was implanted into the right femoral vessels onsite .The low flow duration was 40 minutes. Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation blood flow was set to 3 L min(-1), resulting in a closed aortic valve and a massive pulmonary edema. Transesophageal echocardiography showed left ventricular ejection fraction at 5% without aortic valve opening. We first implanted an intra-aortic balloon pump without clinical improvement. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed massive thrombus formation into the aortic root. We decided to perform an open surgical approach for left ventricle unload using a transmitral cannula (22 Fr) via the right superior pulmonary vein connected to the inflow tube of the veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with Y connection. Transesophageal echocardiography showed a full opening of aortic valve and elimination of valve aortic thrombus. Chest radiography showed a significant decrease of pulmonary congestion. We were able to withdraw extracorporeal life support organization on day 10 and discharged on day 54. Clinical explorations reveal a fulminant rocuronium-related hypersensitivity myocarditis. This salvage surgical technique using a modified central veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation technique has efficiently decreased blood stasis and permitted rapid recovery.
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Soumis le : mardi 15 février 2022 - 14:13:23
Dernière modification le : dimanche 28 août 2022 - 14:46:25

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Christophe Beyls, Pierre Huette, Mathieu Guilbart, Alphonse Nzonzuma, Osama Abou Arab, et al.. An urgent open surgical approach for left ventricle venting during peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiac arrest: case report. Perfusion, SAGE Publications, 2020, 35 (1), pp.82-85. ⟨10.1177/0267659119853949⟩. ⟨hal-03575225⟩

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