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Respiratory effects of sarafotoxins from the venom of different $Atractaspis$ genus snake species

Abstract : Sarafotoxins (SRTX) are endothelin-like peptides extracted from the venom of snakes belonging to the Atractaspididae family. A recent in vivo study on anesthetized and ventilated animals showed that sarafotoxin-b (SRTX-b), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis engaddensis, decreases cardiac output by inducing left ventricular dysfunction while sarafotoxin-m (SRTX-m), extracted from the venom of Atractaspis microlepidota microlepidota, induces right ventricular dysfunction with increased airway pressure. The aim of the present experimental study was to compare the respiratory effects of SRTX-m and SRTX-b. Male Wistar rats were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. They received either a 1 LD$_{50}$ IV bolus of SRTX-b (n = 5) or 1 LD50 of SRTX-m (n = 5). The low-frequency forced oscillation technique was used to measure respiratory impedance. Airway resistance (Raw), parenchymal damping (G) and elastance (H) were determined from impedance data, before and 5 min after SRTX injection. SRTX-m and SRTX-b injections induced acute hypoxia and metabolic acidosis with an increased anion gap. Both toxins markedly increased Raw, G and H, but with a much greater effect of SRTX-b on H, which may have been due to pulmonary edema in addition to bronchoconstriction. Therefore, despite their structural analogy, these two toxins exert different effects on respiratory function. These results emphasize the role of the C-terminal extension in the in vivo effect of these toxins.
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Soumis le : lundi 21 février 2022 - 16:20:29
Dernière modification le : vendredi 5 août 2022 - 11:25:59
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Stephanie Malaquin, Sam Bayat, Osama Abou Arab, Gilles Mourier, Emmanuel Lorne, et al.. Respiratory effects of sarafotoxins from the venom of different $Atractaspis$ genus snake species. Toxins, MDPI, 2016, 8 (7), pp.215. ⟨10.3390/toxins8070215⟩. ⟨hal-03575533⟩

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