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Neutralising antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 omicron among elderly nursing home residents following a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine: A community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort study

Abstract : BACKGROUND: The protective immunity against omicron following a BNT162b2 Pfizer booster dose among elderly individuals (ie, those aged >65 years) is not well characterised. METHODS: In a community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort study taking place in France in which 75 residents from three nursing homes were enrolled, we selected 38 residents who had received a two-dose regimen of mRNA vaccine and a booster dose of Pfizer BNT162b2 vaccine. We excluded individuals that did not receive three vaccine doses or did not have available sera samples. We measured anti-S IgG antibodies and neutralisation capacity in sera taken 56 (28-68) and 55 (48-64) days (median (range)) after the 2(nd) and 3(rd) vaccine doses, respectively. Antibodies targeting the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein were measured with the S-Flow assay as binding antibody units per milliliter (BAU/mL). Neutralising activities in sera were measured as effective dilution 50% (ED50) with the S-Fuse assay using authentic isolates of delta and omicron BA.1. FINDINGS: Among the 38 elderly individuals recruited to the cohort study between November 23(rd), 2020 and April 29(th), 2021, with median age of 88 (range 72-101) years, 30 (78.95%) had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2. After three vaccine doses, serum neutralising activity was lower against omicron BA.1 (median ED50 of 774.5, range 15.0-34660.0) than the delta variant (median ED50 of 4972.0, range 213.7-66340.0), and higher among previously infected (ie, convalescent; median ED50 against omicron: 1088.0, range 32.6-34660.0) compared with infection-naive residents (median ED50 against omicron: 188.4, range 15.0-8918.0). During the French omicron wave in December 2021-January 2022, 75% (6/8) of naive residents were infected, compared to 25% (7/30) of convalescent residents (P=0.0114). Anti-Spike antibody levels and neutralising activity against omicron BA.1 after a third BNT162b2 booster dose were lower in those with breakthrough BA.1 infection (n=13) compared with those without (n=25), with a median of 1429.9 (range 670.9-3818.3) BAU/mL vs 2528.3 (range 695.4-8832.0) BAU/mL (P=0.029) and a median ED50 of 281.1 (range 15.0-2136.0) vs 1376.0 (range 32.6-34660.0) (P=0.0013), respectively. INTERPRETATION: This study shows that elderly individuals who received three vaccine doses elicit neutralising antibodies against the omicron BA.1 variant of SARS-CoV-2. Elderly individuals who had also been previously infected showed higher neutralising activity compared with naive individuals. Yet, breakthrough infections with omicron occurred. Individuals with breakthrough infections had significantly lower neutralising titers compared to individuals without breakthrough infection. Thus, a fourth dose of vaccine may be useful in the elderly population to increase the level of neutralising antibodies and compensate for waning immunity.
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https://hal-u-picardie.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03740505
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Soumis le : lundi 1 août 2022 - 13:47:03
Dernière modification le : vendredi 5 août 2022 - 14:54:01

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Timothée Bruel, Laurie Pinaud, Laura Tondeur, Delphine Planas, Isabelle Staropoli, et al.. Neutralising antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 omicron among elderly nursing home residents following a booster dose of BNT162b2 vaccine: A community-based, prospective, longitudinal cohort study. EClinicalMedicine, Elsevier, 2022, 51, pp.101576. ⟨10.1016/j.eclinm.2022.101576⟩. ⟨hal-03740505⟩

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