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Composition and Structure of Winter Aphid-Parasitoid Food Webs along a Latitudinal Gradient in Chile.

Abstract : All species interact in complex antagonistic or mutualistic networks that may be driven by turnover in species composition due to spatiotemporal environmental filtering. Therefore, studying differences in insect communities along environmental gradients may improve our understanding of the abiotic and biotic factors that shape the structure of trophic networks. Parasitoids are interesting models to do so, due to their intimate eco-evolutionary relationship with their hosts. We explored the differences in cereal aphid-parasitoid food webs during the winter among nine localities in Chilean central-south valley, along a gradient of 1200~km from north (29° S) to south (40° S). We hypothesized that diapause incidence would increase in the coldest areas, resulting in a lower number of parasitoid species active during the winter. Consequently, network specialization, generality, and vulnerability indexes should increase with decreasing latitude, which implies fewer and more weakly connected links per parasitoid species through an increased fraction of basal host species. Based on the severity of winter, three areas along the explored gradient were distinguished, but clustering did not follow a clear north-south latitudinal gradient. Instead, few differences were observed in overwintering strategies, with very low levels of diapause in all localities, and no major differences in food-web composition. The major differences along the gradient were the relative abundances of the different aphid, parasitoid and hyperparasitoid species, with higher levels of spatial and temporal variation observed for the less abundant species. Our results provide a better understanding of the activity and abundance of aphid parasitoids during winter in relation to climatic conditions.
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https://hal-u-picardie.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-03832988
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Soumis le : vendredi 28 octobre 2022 - 10:22:18
Dernière modification le : dimanche 30 octobre 2022 - 03:12:16

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Armando Alfaro-Tapia, Jeniffer K. Alvarez-Baca, Kévin Tougeron, Joan Van Baaren, Blas Lavandero, et al.. Composition and Structure of Winter Aphid-Parasitoid Food Webs along a Latitudinal Gradient in Chile.. Oecologia, 2022, ⟨10.1007/s00442-022-05270-0⟩. ⟨hal-03832988⟩

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